Lawmakers in the Senate and House of Representatives returned Monday after a week in their home districts. The current funding for the government expires on Friday.
In his weekly national address Saturday, President Barack Obama urged lawmakers to find common ground and pass a budget agreement before the current funding runs out.
The federal government has been running on temporary spending bills since late last year, as Congress has not passed a full budget.
The last federal government was shutdown in late 1995 and early 1996 during the presidency of Democrat Bill Clinton.